Fortunately, Pakistan enjoys its considerable measure of variety while the wide-ranging impact in Pakistan is most probably expected to become a climate change. For example, reduction in agriculture, increased variability in water availability, an incursion of seawater, extreme climatic events. Many areas, especially North-western Mountain remains extremely cold in winter while between April to September remains very pleasant.
There are wide-ranging impacts of climate change in Pakistan. The reason for addressing this sensitive and growing issue is to highlight it on a national level and to implement national policy and climate-smart investment in infrastructure and business.
Overview of the Country
Geographically Pakistan has extended its boundaries over 796000 km2. From June to September, the southern half area mainly receives monsoon summer through southwest while the southern half receives mainly rain through western weather. The ratio of the total monsoon rainfall is 60% annually.
Some of the world’s highest mountain peaks are part of the northern region of Pakistan. Few among them are K2, Siachen, and Biafo having 63km of height and that feed the Indus River and some of the Indus River tribute.
Globally, Pakistan has ranked in the top ten most affected countries by climate change. This change owing to its geographical location for the past twenty years.
The Global index annual report for 2020 says that Pakistan has lost US$ 3792.52 million economically. Looking into these issues, the Government measured policy, overall management performance, and strategy, meanwhile addressed the issue on country level.
Over the area of 880,000 square kilometers, it is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran on the west, China on the northeast, and India on the east. Pakistan has a diverse topography that includes alpine temperature, and a sub-tropical ecosystem. Moreover, the country’s diversity extended to its environmental characteristics that differ from region to region.
Provinces of the Country
Pakistan has a total of 4 provinces, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Baluchistan. But in addition, Federal Administrative Area and Azad Jammu and Kashmir are part of Pakistan. Each of the provinces has been stretching further to over 990 km. The vast plains of the Indus valley remain very cold in winter while extremely hot in summer. Due to the general deficiency in rainfall south has a high-temperature climate. Other provinces, especially in northern parts of the lower Indus having an average rainfall of 13cm while 89cm in the Himalayan region.
As per the annual rainfall report, the country has an average rainfall of 76cm per annum.
Climate Change Impact
Climate change of Pakistan concerns more with the variability of monsoon, reduced hydropower while in the drought years, and the decreased capacity of water reservation.
Overall potential changes impact includes the following:
- Insecurity of food
- Severe water stress
- Decrease agriculture
- Degradation of ecosystem
- More prevalent pests and
- Loss of biodiversity
A higher temperature affect the composition, distribution, and productivity of mangroves
The Prime Minister Vision
The prime minister of Pakistan has a clear vision to drive a clean and green environment for all the citizens of Pakistan. A strategic unit of MoCC on water, sanitation, and hygiene in collaboration with key stakeholders rolling out a sustainable development Goal’s agenda for safe water and clean green Pakistan. The Ten Billion Tsunami Program is also a major part of the campaign. Which is covering all the major provinces with provincial budgetary share.
Moreover, the Ten Billion Trees Tsunami program has also adopted a widespread participatory approach through all the concerned authorities across the country. For the implementation of their vision all segments of societies including students, youth, farmers, and professionals actively participated in the afforestation and clean green Pakistan’s activities. The allocated amount for the TBTTP campaign is worth 7.5 billion out of which 6.0 billion has been released to different territories and provinces.
Governments Strategies for Climate Change
The Government of Pakistan launched an ecosystem restoration initiative that will be environmentally resilient Pakistan by mainstreaming adaption and with the ecological initiatives. Climate change also affects productivity changes of the land and the species composition and distribution. However, the coastal zones of Pakistan, specifically Karachi could be affected by coastal erosion by the rising level of the sea. A Public service message has been also disseminated on the country level regarding the climate impact on the livestock sector, biodiversity, and its impact on health and food.
Ministry of climate change has been taking initiative on country level and launches campaigns and awareness countrywide about the impact of climate change and its solution. Most people registered themselves as volunteers for the five pillars of Clean Green Pakistan which are plantation, safe water, safe sanitation, waste management, and solid waste management.
As the result of two-way communication flow, the government is frequently responding to the citizens and resolving their queries and complaints.
The National Ozone unit has been continuously responding and actively monitoring the climate change impact and frequently raising awareness campaigns. Some program has been also launched to reduce the risk for human health and climate change.