Fortunately, Pakistan enjoys its considerable measure of variety while the wide-ranging impact in Pakistan is most probably expected to become a climate change. For example, reduction in agriculture, increased variability in water availability, an incursion of seawater, extreme climatic events. Many areas, especially North-western Mountain remains extremely cold in winter while between April to September remains very pleasant.
There are wide-ranging impacts of climate change in Pakistan. The reason for addressing this sensitive and growing issue is to highlight it on a national level and to implement national policy and climate-smart investment in infrastructure and business.
Overview of the Country
Geographically Pakistan has extended its boundaries over 796000 km2. From June to September, the southern half area mainly receives monsoon summer through southwest while the southern half receives mainly rain through western weather. The ratio of the total monsoon rainfall is 60% annually.
Some of the world’s highest mountain peaks are part of the northern region of Pakistan. Few among them are K2, Siachen, and Biafo having 63km of height and that feed the Indus River and some of the Indus River tribute.
Globally, Pakistan has ranked in the top ten most affected countries by climate change. This change owing to its geographical location for the past twenty years.
The Global index annual report for 2020 says that Pakistan has lost US$ 3792.52 million economically. Looking into these issues, the Government measured policy, overall management performance, and strategy, meanwhile addressed the issue on country level.
Over the area of 880,000 square kilometers, it is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran on the west, China on the northeast, and India on the east. Pakistan has a diverse topography that includes alpine temperature, and a sub-tropical ecosystem. Moreover, the country’s diversity extended to its environmental characteristics that differ from region to region.
Provinces of the Country
Pakistan has a total of 4 provinces, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Baluchistan. But in addition, Federal Administrative Area and Azad Jammu and Kashmir are part of Pakistan. Each of the provinces has been stretching further to over 990 km. The vast plains of the Indus valley remain very cold in winter while extremely hot in summer. Due to the general deficiency in rainfall south has a high-temperature climate. Other provinces, especially in northern parts of the lower Indus having an average rainfall of 13cm while 89cm in the Himalayan region.
As per the annual rainfall report, the country has an average rainfall of 76cm per annum.
Climate Change Impact
Climate change of Pakistan concerns more with the variability of monsoon, reduced hydropower while in the drought years, and the decreased capacity of water reservation.
Overall potential changes impact includes the following:
- Insecurity of food
- Severe water stress
- Decrease agriculture
- Degradation of ecosystem
- More prevalent pests and
- Loss of biodiversity
A higher temperature affect the composition, distribution, and productivity of mangroves
The Prime Minister Vision
The prime minister of Pakistan has a clear vision to drive a clean and green environment for all the citizens of Pakistan. A strategic unit of MoCC on water, sanitation, and hygiene in collaboration with key stakeholders rolling out a sustainable development Goal’s agenda for safe water and clean green Pakistan. The Ten Billion Tsunami Program is also a major part of the campaign. Which is covering all the major provinces with provincial budgetary share.
Moreover, the Ten Billion Trees Tsunami program has also adopted a widespread participatory approach through all the concerned authorities across the country. For the implementation of their vision all segments of societies including students, youth, farmers, and professionals actively participated in the afforestation and clean green Pakistan’s activities. The allocated amount for the TBTTP campaign is worth 7.5 billion out of which 6.0 billion has been released to different territories and provinces.
Governments Strategies for Climate Change
The Government of Pakistan launched an ecosystem restoration initiative that will be environmentally resilient Pakistan by mainstreaming adaption and with the ecological initiatives. Climate change also affects productivity changes of the land and the species composition and distribution. However, the coastal zones of Pakistan, specifically Karachi could be affected by coastal erosion by the rising level of the sea. A Public service message has been also disseminated on the country level regarding the climate impact on the livestock sector, biodiversity, and its impact on health and food.
Ministry of climate change has been taking initiative on country level and launches campaigns and awareness countrywide about the impact of climate change and its solution. Most people registered themselves as volunteers for the five pillars of Clean Green Pakistan which are plantation, safe water, safe sanitation, waste management, and solid waste management.
As the result of two-way communication flow, the government is frequently responding to the citizens and resolving their queries and complaints.
The National Ozone unit has been continuously responding and actively monitoring the climate change impact and frequently raising awareness campaigns. Some program has been also launched to reduce the risk for human health and climate change.
Pakistan pharmaceutical industry is a thriving and progressive sector. There was almost no pharmaceutical business in the country when it gained independence in 1947. Pakistan now has around 759 pharmaceutical manufacturing units, including those run by 25 foreign corporations.
Pakistan’s pharmaceutical sector supplies over 70% of the country’s completed medicinal needs. The local Pharma market is roughly evenly split between nationals and multinationals in terms of market share.
Pharmaceutical industry overview:
The national pharmaceutical sector has grown steadily throughout the years, notably in the recent decade. In the previous few years, the sector has made significant investments to modernize it, and currently the bulk of the business follows Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in compliance with both domestic and international guidance.
Currently, the business can produce a wide range of products, from simple tablets to advanced Biotech, Oncology, and Value Added Generic chemicals.
Pharmaceutical industry growth:
Despite the fact that Pakistan’s pharmaceutical and healthcare sectors are quickly expanding and evolving, about half of the population still lacks access to modern medicines. Clearly, this creates an opportunity, but the government and business players must put in a lot more effort.
Pharmaceutical industry worth:
Overall pharmaceutical sales for the fiscal year ending June 30, 2020 were Rs453.5 billion, up 9% from the previous fiscal year. On a quarterly basis, overall sales increased by 4% to Rs111.12 billion in the quarter. In the last four years, Pakistani pharmaceutical companies have generated yearly revenues of Rs453.5 billion, with a CAGR of 13.1 percent.
During the aforementioned time, national drug makers held a 68 percent portion of overall revenues, up 10%, while foreign drug makers held a 32 percent stake, up 8%.
According to a report published by IQVIA, an American global information and technology solution firm, Pakistan’s pharmaceutical industry has become one of the world’s fastest-growing industries. In the last four years, Pakistani pharmaceutical companies have grown at a cumulative average growth rate (CAGR) of 13.1%, compared to 9.34% for multinational enterprises (MNCs),
According to an IQVIA analysis, medication spending growth in Pharma markets has slowed over the last five years and is expected to grow at a rate of 5 to 8% until 2023. Between 2019 and 2023, Turkey, Egypt, and Pakistan are expected to expand the most in pharmaceutical industry.
According to the estimate, the worldwide pharmaceutical market will approach $1.5 trillion by 2023, rising at a compound annual growth rate of 3 to 6% during the next five years, down from 6.3 percent in the previous five years.
The pace of recession in the pharmaceutical sector has slowed, according to the Pakistan Economic Survey 2019-20. In FY-2020, it fell 5.38 percent from July to March, compared to an 8.66 percent drop in the previous year’s similar period. In March, the sector had the largest sales, and in April 2020, it brought in $1.3 million in foreign direct investment.
The provisional GDP growth rate for Financial Year 2020, on the other hand, is predicted to be minus 0.38 percent. The pharmaceutical business was recognised as a sunrise industry by Mckinsey & Company in a research commissioned by Pakistan’s Planning Commission and the Asian Development Bank.
Purpose of pharmaceutical industry:
The pharmaceutical industry’s primary purpose is to develop pharmaceuticals that prevent infections, maintain health, and cure diseases. Because this industry has such a large impact on the world’s population, a variety of international regulatory authorities keep an eye on matters like drug safety, patents, quality, and pricing.
- World Health Organization (WHO)
- US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
- Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
The pharmaceutical sector has advanced significantly in the previous decade as a result of a research-driven approach that has enhanced technology, developed infrastructures, and increased bioscience research. Several formulations have been produced thanks to biotechnology to cure or limit the spread of several important illnesses, including HIV and some types of cancer.
In 2014, the global pharmaceutical sector was predicted to be worth $1 trillion. Global pharmaceutical markets earned $980.1 billion in revenue in 2013. North America (the United States and Canada) accounted for 41% of sales in that year, while Europe accounted for 27.4%. In 2018, the global pharmaceutical sector was worth $1.2 trillion, according to the IQVIA Institute for Human Data Science, and $1.5 trillion is expected in 2019.
Benefits of pharmaceutical industry:
The pharmaceutical industry, according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, develops and manufactures products that aid in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, saving millions of lives and allowing people suffering from diseases and illnesses to recover and lead more productive lives.
To mention a few, the pharmaceutical business creates medications to treat influenza, sexually transmitted infections, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hepatitis, Parkinson’s disease, and cancer, to name a few. Many of these disorders are deadly and life-threatening, and these products help patients live longer.
Pakistan pharmaceutical industry will grow rapidly and will provide cure of extreme disease. The challenge for our business community and government institutions is to fulfill the need of our population, as mentioned above that half of the population are still unable to find proper cure and medicine of their disease.
Regal Pharma is focusing to fulfill this gap. Our mission is serve humanity and provides pharmaceutical facilities to every individual of Pakistan. Our objective is to build strong pharmaceutical facilities in Pakistan because we care about our people.
COVID-19 & Pakistan Health Crisis
When the third wave of Covid-19 rages, it may sound premature to speak of ‘afterward.’ It’s not too early, however. How countries counter to health emergencies depends directly on the way they were prepared for the crisis. In fact, “health emergency” may be a pure health problem, like a pandemic, or a corollary to other disasters, including earthquakes, floods and famines, at local or national level.
We were less ready to face a health tragedy, as demonstrated in the Covid- 19 incident. Although Pakistan is vulnerable to disasters, we have not constantly invested in disaster preparedness relating to health and, consequently, our hazardous response. There are a variety of policies and operations that cover our lack of preparedness for healthiness emergencies.
WHO supported an independent assessment of our “core capacities” in Pakistan in 2016 to prevention, detection and reaction to health threats? In the context of the International Health Regulations (2005), a main team of international experts has been around for weeks to assess, including the position of pandemic preparation, 19 technical areas in detail. The appraisal team produced an extensive report containing detailed recommendations for the improvement of the national infrastructure and operation for emergencies, but it did not employ.
Pakistan currently lacks the legal base to announce an emergency in terms of national health. Health ministries are less ready to react on their own to a health crisis. During national emergencies the 18th amendment further destabilized and complicated national coordination.
There is not even close operational management of the National Disaster Management Authority with its counterparts. There would not be any need to set up a National Command Operation Center if there were a rational national disaster management institutional network. Also, at 19 entry points (airports, etc) in a country that is a vital function in the event of a pandemic like Covid-19, a weak, ill-controlled organization, under the federal Ministry for National Health, Regulation and Coordination is responsible for screening and Quarantining. This organization must be thoroughly revised.
We also require a strong and trustworthy national disease monitoring system and an imaginative, fast response team led by a field epidemiologist in each district. The ICU beds and critical care specialists in Pakistan are also intensely lacking. Our system is starting to shudder as the number of critical patients increases. In this respect, a vigorous ramp-up plan is desirable. Pakistan currently lacks the officially authorized base to state an emergency in terms of national health.
There are many inequities around the world, including in the health sector. As shown by Covid-19, high-income health systems are also not sheltered from the overall effects of the pandemic. In the current vaccine struggle the inequalities between rich and poor countries were also exposed.
In high-income countries at low-risk adult populations are vaccinated, while high risk front-line health workers and co-morbidity elderly people await their vaccines. Similarly, in poor countries the haves and have-nots get privately vaccines from the rich, whereas in the public sector the old and frail and the poor wait for their turns.
Covid-19 has universally exposed health systems. Just as the global community learned its teachings after World War II and said ‘never again,’ the global health care plan now calls for a similar degree of response.
Countries need to reorganize their health systems’ vision to a universal primary healthcare coverage. The case for healthcare investments is strong and their positive externalities affect not only health but national productivity, human development and growth as well.
Health workers must be taught to meet national health needs and priority. Everyone should have access to necessary medicines and technology and provide chains should be fitted, clear and efficient. Health services should go beyond patient therapy and cover preventive, encouragement, rehabilitation and palliative care.
Important functions of public health, such as sickness monitoring, disease control and health sector directive, must be strengthened. Disaster preparedness and response as part of healthcare must be considered. Health is an interdisciplinary fact and requires a government-wide and social approach.
It is not only the responsibility of health ministries, e.g. water, poverty, education and risky behaviors have many significant determinants for health. Intensification primary healthcare should be a key priority. The majority of economic health services can and should be provided here.
There are terrible indicators of health in Pakistan. Health of mother and child is in dismay. The incidence of communicable diseases is out of control and dangerously high. Our healthcare system is built-up and hospital based, dominated and least regulated by the private division.
The functions of public health were never strong but now, following the 18th amendment, are extremely disjointed. Pakistan has low health spending, in spite of its low income countries, and after Covid-19’s financial impact, fiscal space has declined even further. However, our healthcare system needs to be given more grim and sustained care than ever before.
Covid 19 tremble us. As the pandemic falls, before another disaster strikes us we have to put our healthcare on warfare. We should set up a nation-wide health committee that should conduct an early review and recommend boldly and in-deathly so that we can deliver decent and necessary healthcare and prepare ourselves for major health challenges, including emergencies in the future. Health care spending should not be seen as a social overhead, but as an investment.